Publications and Presentations

This page lists the conference presentations and papers that have been produced as part of the EQUALPRIME Project.


Book – Quality Teaching in Primary Science Education: Cross-cultural Perspectives

Editors: Hackling, Mark, Ramseger, Jörg, Chen, Hsiao-Lan Sharon (Eds.)

Available at

Chapter 1: An Overview of the EQUALPRIME Project, Its History and Research Design. By Jörg Ramseger and Gisela Romain.

Chapter 2: Social and Cultural Factors Framing the Teaching and Learning of Primary Science in Australia, Germany and Taiwan. By Mark Hackling, Hsiao-Lan Sharon Chen and Gisela Romain.

Chapter 3: Physical Learning Environments for Science Education: An Ethnographic Field Study of Primary Classrooms in Australia, Germany and Taiwan. By Peter Hubber and Jörg Ramseger.

Chapter 4: Variation in Whole Class, Small Group and Individual Student Work Within and Across Cultures. By Mark Hackling, George Aranda and Ines Freitag-Amtmann.

Chapter 5: Inquiry Teaching and Learning: Forms, Approaches, and Embedded Views Within and Across Cultures. By Hsiao-Lan Sharon Chen and Russell Tytler.

Chapter 6: Teachers from Diverse Cultural Settings Orchestrating Classroom Discourse. By Russell Tytler, George Aranda and Ines Freitag-Amtmann.

Chapter 7: Reasoning Through Representations. By Russell Tytler, Karen Murcia, Chao-Ti Hsiung and Jörg Ramseger.

Chapter 8: Embodied Strategies in the Teaching and Learning of Science. By Khadeeja Ibrahim-Didi, Mark Hackling, Jörg Ramseger and Barbara Sherriff.

Chapter 9: Reflections on Reasoning. By Russell Tytler.

Chapter 10: Reflections on Quality Teaching in Primary Science Classrooms in Diverse Cultural Settings. By Gail Chittleborough, Jörg Ramseger, Chao-Ti Hsuing, Peter Hubber and Russell Tytler.

Chapter 11: Reflections on Video-Based, Cross-Cultural Classroom Research Methodologies. Mark Hackling, Gisela Romain and George Aranda.

Chapter 12: Implications for Practice and Teacher Education. By Russell Tytler, Jörg Ramseger, Peter Hubber and Ines Freitag-Amtmann.

Chapter 13: Implications for Cross-Cultural Comparative Studies of Teaching and Learning. By Hsiao Lan Sharon Chen and Pei-Tseng Jenny Hsieh.

Teacher orchestration of multimodal resources to support the construction of an explanation in a Year 4 Astronomy topic
Mark Hackling, Karen Murcia and Khadeeja Ibrahim-Didi
Teaching Science Volume 59 | Number 1 | March 2013

Abstract: Video-based classroom research is opening-up exciting new insights into how teachers generate productive opportunities for student engagement in quality learning. This research reveals the extent to which effective teachers draw on a range of multimodal representations of science phenomena and learners must use these as semiotic resources for learning. This case study of a Year 4 class studying an introductory astronomy unit offers insights into a teacher’s orchestration of a range of multimodal representations to support the co-construction of an explanation for a science phenomenon.

Was die Welt zusammenhält [Translation: What holds the world together]
An online article in Tagesspiegel-Beilage from Freien Universität, about the EQUALPRIME project. Text is in German.

Expert Teachers’ Discursive Moves in Science Classroom Interactive Talk
Russell Tytler & George Aranda
International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education | Volume 13 | Number 2 | pp 425-446 | 2015

Abstract: It is well established that teacher-student interactive talk is critically important in supporting students to reason and learn in science. Teachers’ discursive moves in responding to student input are keys to developing and supporting a rich vein of interactive discussion. While initiation-response-evaluation (IRE) sequences have been shown to dominate science classroom discourse patterns worldwide, teacher ‘prompts’ are important for opening up opportunities for reasoning and higher level learning. This paper describes the analysis of video sequences for five expert elementary teachers across three countries to develop a coding scheme for these teachers’ ‘discursive moves’ to guide and respond to student inputs, that unpacks more completely the strategies they use to develop interactive discussion. The analysis showed varied patterns of knowledge transaction, with teacher discursive moves serving three broad purposes: to elicit and acknowledge student responses, to clarify and to extend student ideas. The patterns of talk were also related to the dialogic-authoritative distinction in analysis of talk, to show that this distinction is only clear for particular types of expert practice. While the particular moves teachers use vary across parts of lessons we argue that they are revealing of teachers’ particular beliefs and of systemic constraints, and that there exist patterns in the use of the discursive categories that capture how expert teachers build deeper level knowledge in classroom interactive talk. We describe ways in which the analysis can inform science teacher education and the professional learning of teachers of science.

Language-based reasoning in primary science
Mark Hackling & Barbara Sherriff
Teaching Science Volume 61 | Number 2 | 2015

Abstract: Language is critical in the mediation of scientific reasoning, higher order thinking and the development of scientific literacy. This study investigated how an exemplary primary science teacher scaffolds and supports students’ reasoning during a Year 4 Materials unit. Lessons captured on video, teacher and student interviews and micro-ethnographic analysis of classroom discourse reveal a sophisticated repertoire of teacher practices focusing on the development of language, conceptual understanding and reasoning within a classroom culture that supports reasoned arguments. The integration of conversation threads supporting language and conceptual development, syntactical and metacognitive scaffolds, prompts and self-regulation strategies extend the opportunities for scientific reasoning.

Conference Presentations

Center for Research in Primary Education, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, September, 2010
The Development of Scientific Reasoning in Primary School Children: An International Discourse.

The German education system with special emphasis on current reforms in primary science teaching
Joerg Ramseger, Freie Universität Berlin

Reflections on the implementation of innovative Nano-science activities in primary and middle schools in Taiwan and Hong Kong
Chao-Ti Hsiung, National Taipei University of Education

An exploratory analysis of scientific reasoning – Looking into two elementary science classrooms
Chi-Ling Wu, National Taipei University of Education, Pei-Tseng Jenny Hsieh, University of Oxford

Using Toulmins Argument Pattern to enhance students’ scientific reasoning skills
Yu-Chi Chao, National Taipei University of Education

Reasoning as multiple representation coordination: Analysing video and student artefacts
Russell Tytler, Deakin University, Melbourne

What to look for and how to analyse: Methodological issues in comparative studies on teaching
Hsiao-Lan Sharon Chen, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei

Discourse analysis of scientific reasoning in the primary school
Mark W. Hackling, Edith Cowan University, Perth

Contemporary Approaches to Research in Mathematics, Science, Health and Environmental Education Symposium, Melbourne, November, 2011
Gail, Peter, Russell (November, 2011) – Paper
George – November, 2011 – Paper

American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, April 2012
Symposium Title: A Cross-National Exploration of Quality Learning and Reasoning in Elementary Science.

Cross‐Cultural Comparisons of Reasoning in Elementary School Science.
Russell W. Tytler, Peter Hubber, Gail Chittleborough

Elementary Teachers’ Experiences of Coconstructive Approaches to Supporting Reasoning in German Science Classrooms.
Joerg Ramseger

Student‐Teacher Interactions Supporting Reasoning in Taiwanese Astronomy Classrooms.
Chao‐Ti Hsiung, Ch‐Ling Wu, Hsiao‐Lan S. Chen

Multimodal Representation and Reasoning in an Australian Classroom.
Mark W. Hackling, Karen Murcia

Australasian Science Education Research Association, Gold Coast, July 2012
Cross‐cultural Science Education Research: An objective lens?
George Aranda and Peter Hubber

Reasoning through representation: Contrasting cases of learning sequences in Taiwan and Germany
Chao‐Ti Hsiung, Russell Tytler, Joerg Ramseger, Sharon Chen, Gisela Romain & Ines Freitag‐Antmann

Justification of reasoning: The challenge from a multi‐modal perspective
Khadeeja Ibrahim‐Didi, Mark Hackling & Karen Murcia

Connecting teaching and learning: Examining the strategies used to promote reasoning through rich discourse in an inquiry approach to teaching primary
Peter Hubber, Gail Chittleborough, George Aranda

Orchestration of Semiotic Resources to Support Co‐construction of Explanation and Student Reasoning in Primary Science: An Australian case study
Mark Hackling, Karen Murcia

Australian Association Research in Education, Sydney, December 2012
Symposium Title: Reasoning in primary science classrooms in Taiwan, Germany and Australia

“Ours to reason why”: An examination of the reasoning construct in science classrooms in different cultures.
Russell Tytler, Peter Hubber & Gail Chittleborough

Student‐teacher interactions supporting scientific reasoning in Taiwanese astronomy classrooms
Chao‐Ti Hsiung, Sharon Hsiao‐Lan Chen, Russell Tytler

Multi modal exploration, representation and reasoning in an Australian primary science classroom
Mark Hackling, Karen Murcia & Khadeeja Ibrahim‐Didi

Scaffolding scientific reasoning by co‐constructive science teaching and learning in German primary classrooms
Joerg Ramseger

Symposium Title: Capturing quality primary science teaching across cultures

Studying classrooms across cultures: Methodological considerations
Sharon Hsiao‐Lan Chen, Russell Tytler, Joerg Ramseger, Mark Hackling, Chao‐Ti Hsiung

Quality teaching in Australian primary science classrooms: Characterising difference to help identify quality
Peter Hubber, Gail Chittleborough & George Aranda

Orchestration of semiotic resources to support co‐construction of explanation and student reasoning in primary science: An Australian case study
Mark Hackling, Karen Murcia & Khadeeja Ibrahim‐Didi

Contemporary Approaches to Research in Mathematics, Science, Health and Environmental Education Symposium, Melbourne, November, 2012
Looking into classrooms through a stranger’s eyes – Methodological aspects of cross‐cultural research by means of video‐ethnography. Keynote
Joerg Ramseger

Australasian Science Education Research Association, Wellington, New Zealand, July 2013
Teachers supporting reasoning in prim ary science in three countries
Russell Tytler, Peter Hubber, George Aranda

Multimodal reasoning in a Western Australian primary science classroom
Karen Murcia, Mark Hackling, Khadeeja Ibrahim-Didi 

European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Munich, Germany, August, 2013
Symposium Title: Exploring Scientific Reasoning in Primary Classrooms: a Cross‐national Study

Teacher support of reasoning in primary science – a cross‐cultural comparison
Russell Tytler, Jörg Ramseger, Gisela Romain, Ines Freitag‐Antmann, George Aranda, Chao‐Ti Hsiung

Student‐teacher interactions supporting reasoning in Taiwanese science elementary classrooms
Sharon Hsiao‐Lan Chen, Chao‐Ti Hsiung, Chen Wen‐Pei, Chi‐ling Wu Chiling

An Australian case study of multimodal representations and reasoning in primary science
Mark Hackling, Karen Murcia, Khadeeja Ibrahim‐Didi

Quality teaching and reasoning in primary science classrooms: Characterising difference
Joerg Ramseger, Chao‐Ti Hsiung, Ines Freitag‐Antmann, Peter Hubber, Gail Chittleborough

European Science Education Researchers Association, Nicosia, Cyprus, September, 2013
Symposium Title: Using video methods to capture the complexity of classroom interactions

Methods for multimodel analysis and representation of teaching-learning interaction in primary science lessons captured on video.
Mark Hackling, Karen Murcia, Khadeeja Ibrahim-Didi and Susan Hill

Video analyses of teacher support of reasoning in primary science – Comparing classrooms across countries.
Russell Tytler, George Aranda


Australasian Science Education Research Association, Melbourne, July 2014
Examining how feedback from peers can be used in journal writing to promote reasoning by students in elementary science classrooms
George Aranda, Peter Hubber

Teachers’ discursive moves in science classroom interactions
Russell Tytler, George Aranda